advantages of seed plants over seedless plants

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  Wind dispersion of reproductive cells allowed in seedplants to colonize land away from water supplies. If water is needed to passively transport gametes to each other and protect them from desiccation plants were limited to densely inhabited space near water sources. Bryophytes & ferns (seedless) are dependent on moist environments for reproduction but the first seed plants developed an alternate delivery system allowing independence from water- assisted reproduction. Conifers produce pollen that can survive by carrying water and nutrients along. Wind can now carry these male gametophytes to female gametophytes under the scales of a cone. Fertilization produced a diploid seed. The seed is protected and can survive dry conditions for a period of time before growing. Pollen and seeds transferred a conifer’s water dependence for their reproduction to wind dependence.

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